- This route is usually used for tuberculin testing or checking for medication/allergy sensitivities
- It may be used for some cancer immunotherapy
- Use small amounts of solution [0.01-0.1 mL] in a tuberculin syringe with a fine-gauge needle [26 to 27] in lightly pigmented, thin skinned, hairless sites [inner surface of mid-forearm or scapular area of back] at a 10-15 degree angle.
- This route is appropriate for small doses of nonirritating, water-soluble medications and is commonly used for insulin and heparin.
- Use a 3/8- to 5/8-inch, 25- to 27-gauge needle, or an insulin syringe of 28- to 31- gauge.
- Inject no more than 1.5 mL solution.
- For an average size client, pinch up skin and inject at 45-90 degree angle. For an obese client, use a 90 degree angle.
- Sites are selected for adequate fat-pad size [abdomen, upper hips, lateral upper arms, thighs]
- This route is appropriate for irritating medications, solutions in oils, and aqueous suspensions.
- Most common sites include ventrogluteal, dorsogluteal, deltoid, and vast us lateralis [pediatric]
- Use needle size 18 to 27 [usually 22- to 25-gauge], 1 to 1.5 inches long, and inject at a 90 degree angle.
- Volume injected is usually 1-3 mL.
- If > 3 mL is required, divide into two syringes and use two sites.
Distribution of dark matter in the universe, as simulated with a novel, high-resolution algorithm at the Kavli Institute of Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology (KIPAC) at Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. (Via Space.com)
Someone asked me to explain the Higgs Boson. This will be the last question I answer in a while. I’ll let the ask function stay open, but I’ll be collecting the questions and answering some of them at a later date. To clarify my earlier post, I do not consider any of the questions I answered to…
Since Benjamin Banneker and George Washington Carver left their marks on American science, African Americans have made great strides as scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and inventors. It’s a story of success in the face of great odds in a racist society. However, there’s still much room for progress, because even today blacks are sorely underrepresented as science students, teachers, and professionals. Here you can hear the voices of just a few of the black scientists who are living and working in North America today—and helping to pave the way for those who will follow.MORE
Why Does Time Flow Forward?
Almost nothing is more obvious than the fact that time flows from the past, which we remember, toward the future, which we don’t. Scientists and philosophers call this the psychological arrow of time. Hot coffee left on your desk cools down, and never heats up on its own, which reflects the thermodynamic arrow of time.
In a paper scheduled to appear this week in the journal Physical Review E, two physicists make the case that these two long-separate notions of time — one based on psychology and one based on thermodynamics — must always align.
The principles of thermodynamics show that large collections of particles, like the trillions upon trillions of liquid molecules in a coffee cup, always move toward more disorganized arrangements. For instance, hot water molecules clumped together in a cold room need a lot of organization, so warm drinks eventually cool to the surrounding temperature. Physicists say such disorganized arrangements have high entropy, whereas ordered arrangements have low entropy.